There are over 6,000 human languages in the world spread across various cultures. Computers use and need languages to give instructions, implement algorithms and make progress as well. Just as Mandarin, Spanish, and English have become the most widely-used spoken languages, programming languages have also formed into a hierarchical pattern of popularity.
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What are Frameworks?
Software frameworks provide developers with a standard foundation on which to build and deploy programs for particular platforms. Frameworks are reusable, universal and can enable the use of certain functionalities within a programming platform. They can be used to develop web applications and may include the use of compilers, plugins, libraries, APIs and support programs.
Without using a framework, developers are required to work directly with the code of a base programming language. This can be more complicated and time-consuming, so the use of a framework is often preferred. Each programming language may have one or more framework to aid web development, and frameworks may take various structures such as Model View Controller (MVC) or Model View Adaptor (MVA).
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This is a fast-growing framework that is commonly used for high performing enterprise applications. React was developed by Facebook and used by the site in production and also for the entire Instagram platform.
React has a virtual DOM which means for every Document Object Model (DOM) object there is a virtual representation. This enables it to be integrated with any application. It also has JSX, an extension which allows it to structure components and create SEO-friendly web pages.
React is an MVC framework that works mainly with the view, as the interface can be updated without having to deal with the server. For this reason, it is best used for applications with multiple views.
Operated by Google, Angular.js is a popular open-source framework that is used to power sites that include PayPal, LinkedIn, Freelancer and Lego. It is a front-end development framework that is used for building dynamic Single Page Applications (SPAs).
Content can be transmitted from the server to the browser as the pages are loaded, and different sections of the page can be updated without reloading the complete page content. As more development is performed in the browser, less emphasis is on the server and pages can load more quickly.
It is easier to use with JSON processing and can be easily learned by those with experience in front-end web development. It comes with comprehensive documentation, a built optimizer that removes unwanted runtime code, and it may be used in MVC as well as MVW architecture.
Vue.js is another SPA and it is lightweight, progressive and adapted to the needs of the user. It can be used as a library that adds features to an existing interface, or as a framework for an entire application. It can also power advanced SPAs.
Vue can be integrated with frameworks and libraries that include Laravel, Django and WordPress. It is similar to Angular in template style and similar to React in the component-based props that are used. Unlike React, with Vue component dependencies can be automatically tracked.
React is easy to read and understand, it uses an HTML-based template, rendering functions can be achieved using JSX and it is simple to learn. Companies using Vue.js include Alibaba, Adobe and Grammarly.
It is used by PayPal, Uber, and Walmart.
Using Node.js, apps can be built much faster and with fewer files and code. It allows more request per second, has a faster response time, and the apps do not buffer data. Also, it can be used to build apps with collaborative editing, where the users can view modifications in real-time. It also has the npm package ecosystem, the largest ecosystem of open-source libraries.
Backbone.js is a lightweight library that is used to develop SPAs and client-side applications to be run in the browser. It is a Model View Presenter (MVP) framework that transforms data into models and the DOM into views, binding these together through events.
With Backbone.js, the developer is given more control without a templating engine. Backbone.js also uses a RESTful JSON interface through the MVP model, RESTFUL APIs that sync with the backend and event-driven communication between views and models.
Backbone is often seen as the best model and controller to integrate with the view system of React.js. It has been used by Airbnb, SoundCloud, and Sony.
Polymer and React can be combined for web development with more of a component focus. Polymer differs from Angular in that its components can be described in one HTML file, while in Angular they can be divided into many files.
Both one-way and two-way data binding is allowed, modern APIs can be used for web platforms and polyfills for browsers. Polymer is currently used by Google Play Music, Netflix, and YouTube.
Another open-source framework, Ember.js is used to create SPAs, large web applications or complete development stacks. It is used by LinkedIn, Apple Music, and Vine.
Ember.js is considered to be ‘opinionated’ in that it makes assumptions about the kind of app developers wish to create, and asks for developers to confirm. It has a convention over configuration approach which means everything is configured and ready for getting started.
Ember.js lessens the use of DOM, it has an easy-to-use API, a comprehensive data library, templates built into the interface, an inspecting tool and a Command Line Interface (CLI) that builds pipelines and has an application structure as standard. Ember.js also has excellent admin and support.
Aurelia.js is two-way data binding, it has an extensible HTML compiler that allows developers to create custom elements, its API features a range of modern languages, and it features an advanced client-side router and data-driven UI composition. The framework is sophisticated yet simple to use and forward-looking.
React, Angular.js and Vue.js are the leading frameworks, which suggests there will be more available material as well as potential mentoring and collaborations. However, the more recent or less commonly used frameworks offer particular features that may appeal to developers with specific requirements. As is always the case in web development, learning new languages and skills will be beneficial every time.